The Royal Private Music Collection is a compendium of sheet music belonging to the House of Wettin, which was commissioned by Prince-Elector Frederick Augustus I ("Augustus the Strong") of Saxony at the end of the 17th century. Numerous pieces from the collection were composed by members of the royal family themselves. A major part of the collection consists of 18th century music, with a special focus on Italian operas and music of the Catholic court church, including the private collections of Princess Maria Josepha (1699 – 1757), Princess Maria Antonia Walpurgis (1724 – 1780), Prince-Elector Frederick Augustus II. (1696 – 1763), Elector Frederick Augustus III. (1750 – 1827), and Princess Amalie of Saxony (1794 – 1870). Another part of the collection includes the »Schrank II« from the Hofkapelle Dresden, a collection of 18th century instrumental music, including the renowned Vivaldi collection and the Olesnica Castle library endowment.
In 1896, King Albert of Saxony donated the Royal Private Music Collection to the Royal Public Library. Following the king’s resignation in 1918, the library was renamed the Saxon State Library.